Soils are arranged into 12 Orders. Each order divided into several Suborders.

This classification system is called Soil Taxonomy.

Orders and Suborders

Orders Alfisols Andisols Aridisols Entisols Gelisols Histosols
Suborders Aqualfs Aquands Cryids Aquents Histels Folists
Cryalfs Gelands Salids Arents Turbels Fibrists
Ustalfs Cryands Durids Psamments Orthels Hemists
Xeralfs Torrands Gypisds Fluvents Saprists
Udalfs Xerands Argids Orthents
Vitrands Calcids
Ustands Cambids
Orders Inceptisols Mollisols Oxisols Spodosols Ultisols Vertisols
Suborders Aquepts Albolls Aquox Aquods Aquults Aquerts
Anthrepts Aquolls Torrox Gelods Humults Cryerts
Cryepts Rendolls Ustox Cryods Udults Xererts
Ustepts Cryolls Perox Humods Ustults Torrerts
Xerepts Xerolls Udox Orthods Xerults Usterts
Udepts Ustolls Uderts

Soils may have special features such as accumulation of clay, organic matter or minerals which give additional properties to the soils.

Secondary minerals (minerals that crystalize or form in the soil) indicate special micro-environments, or specific process that the soils have undergone and are used to interpret soils.

More on the Orders and Suborders with maps can be found here

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